Creek Indian documents

Creek Indian documents

Descriptive Summary

Repository: Hargrett Manuscripts
Title: Creek Indian documents
Dates: 1798-1837
Quantity: 0.1 Linear feet (1 folder housed with minor collections range MS 329 to MS 334)
Coll. Number: ms332(m)

Biographical/Historical Note

The history of early Georgia is largely the history of the Creek Indians. For most of Georgia's colonial period, Creeks outnumbered both European colonists and enslaved Africans and occupied more land than these newcomers. Not until the 1760s did the Creeks become a minority population in Georgia. They ceded the balance of their lands to the new state in the 1800s. Creeks largely avoided the American Revolution (1775-83), but their lives changed dramatically thereafter. The deerskin trade collapsed due to a shrinking white-tailed deer population. The new state of Georgia consequently viewed Creeks as impediments to the expansion of plantation slavery rather than as partners in trade. Under pressure by Georgia, Creeks ceded their lands east of the Ocmulgee River in the Treaties of New York (1790), Fort Wilkinson (1802), and Washington (1805). At the same time, the United States initiated a program to turn Creeks into ranchers and planters. Although some Creeks willingly embraced the program, many opposed it. Tension between the two factions was so enormous, it erupted in civil war in 1813. U.S. troops and state militias entered the conflict, and in a final, definitive battle in March 1814 at Horseshoe Bend in Alabama, General Andrew Jackson directed the killing of 800 Creeks. The Red Stick War, as it is called, officially ended in August 1814 with the Treaty of Fort Jackson. In this agreement the Creeks ceded 22 million acres, including a huge tract in southern Georgia. Creeks were soon dispossessed of their remaining land. In the Treaty of Indian Springs of 1825, Georgia agents bribed Creek leader William McIntosh to sign away all Creek territory in the state. Outraged Creeks formally voted to put McIntosh to death for his treachery, and the United States rejected the fraudulent treaty. However, Creeks recognized that the Georgia government would not relent. The following year Creek representatives signed the Treaty of Washington, ceding their remaining Georgia land. New Georgia Encyclopedia. ( Retrieved 5/15/2009.

Scope and Content Note

The collection consists of documents relating mainly to the Creek Indians in the Indian territory of Georgia from 1798-1837. Includes the deposition of William Cavanah, dated January 28, 1798, Jefferson County, Georgia regarding Indian disorders at his plantation in Montgomery County (Ga.); deposition of Brig. Gen. David Blackshear of the Georgia Militia dated Sept. 29, 1813 regarding protection of the Indian frontier and the erection of three forts--Adams, Clark, and McIntosh; letter from Samuel Jackson, Nov. 8, 1813 to Jack F. Cock ordering Cock's company of Georgia Militia to proceed to Smith's fort for protection of the frontier; a declaration signed by Little Prince and twenty-eight Creek town chiefs, dated Aug. 24, 1826, Broken Arrow, Creek Nation regarding laws; another declaration signed by Chilly McIntosh and eight others dated Aug. 28, 1826 disputing the laws cited by Little Prince under which General William McIntosh had been executed and his property confiscated; and a statement, dated Sept. 28, 1836 signed by J.A. Chambers made by prisoners brought in from Thomas County (Ga.) regarding attacks by whites upon Creek Indians crossing the Chattahoochee River, the capture of Eneah Mathla, and the escape of a party of Uchus.

The collection also includes a list of thirty-five negro slaves captured by the Seminole Indians in Southern Florida in January 1857 and redeemed by order of General Thomas S. Jesup. The list includes name, age, height, sex, name of captor, place and date of capture, personal description, and owner's name. On the reverse is an order signed by General Jesup for payment to their captors of $20.00 for each slave on the list.


Arranged in chronological order.

Index Terms

Blackshear, David, 1764-1837
Cavanah, William
Chambers, J. A.
Creek Indians--Georgia.
Georgia. Militia.
Indians of North America--Georgia.
Jackson, Samuel, fl. 1813
Jesup, Thomas Sidney, 1788-1860
Little Prince
McIntosh, Chilly
McIntosh, William, ca. 1775-1825
Montgomery County (Ga.)
Seminole Indians--Florida.
Thomas County (Ga.)

General Notes

Cataloged as part of the Georgia Archives and Manuscripts Automated Access Project: A Special Collections Gateway Program of the University Center in Georgia.

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Creek Indian documents, MS 332. Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries.

Series Descriptions and Folder Listing

11Affidavit [of] Wiliam[?] Cavanah[?], 1798 Jan. 28, Jefferson County, Georgia / sworn to [by] Wiliam[?] Cavanah[?], 1798 January 28 View online.
1Deposition of David Blackshear, 1813 September 29
1[Letter], 1813 Nov. 8 [to] Capt[ain] Jack F. Cock / Sam[ue]l Jackson View online.
1[Statement of] the prisoners (all women) brought in from Thomas County, Georgia, Fort Mitchell, 1836 Sept. 28 / [signed by] J.A. [?] Chambers View online.
1[Legal proceeding], 1826 Aug. 24, Broken Arrow, Creek Nation / [signed by] Tustenuggee Hopie or the Little Prince ... [et al.] View online.
1[Legal opinion on Creek laws], 1826 Aug. 28, Fort Mitchell / sign[ed] by Chilly McIntosh ... [et al.] View online.
1[Roll of] Negro[e]s [captured and returned to] citizens in the Indian country [for] reward to the Indian captors, 1837 View online.