|Creator:||Hall, James, 1793-1868|
|Creator:||McKenney, Thomas Loraine, 1785-1859|
|Title:||McKenney and Hall prints|
|Quantity:||0.1 Linear feet (1 oversized folder A)|
William McIntosh was a controversial chief of the Lower Creeks in early-nineteenth-century Georgia. His general support of the United States and its efforts to obtain cessions of Creek territory alienated him from many Creeks who opposed white encroachment on Indian land. He supported General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War of 1813-14, also known as the Red Stick War and part of the larger War of 1812 conflict (1812-15), and in the First Seminole War (1817-18). His participation in the drafting and signing of the Treaty of Indian Springs of 1825 led to his execution by a contingent of Upper Creeks led by Chief Menawa. New Georgia Encyclopedia. (http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-3541&sug=y) Retrieved 10/7/2009.
Thomas Loraine McKenney, government official, was born in Chestertown, on Maryland's Eastern Shore, the son of William McKenney, a merchant, and Anne Barber, both staunch Quakers. He attended Washington College in Chestertown and at age twenty-one married Editha Gleaves, by whom he fathered two children, a daughter, Maria, who died in infancy, and a son, William. In 1809 McKenney moved his family to Georgetown in the District of Columbia, where he operated a dry goods store. After serving briefly in the local militia during the War of 1812, he resumed his mercantile activities until President James Madison appointed him superintendent of Indian trade in 1816. McKenney is credited with helping secure passage of two major pieces of legislation, the Indian Civilization Act of 1819, which provided the first federal funding in support of Indian education, and the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which was designed to relocate all eastern Indian tribes to new homes west of the Mississippi River. A direct result of the Indian Removal Act was the tragic "Trail of Tears" involving the forced transfer of the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminoles from the southeastern United States to Indian Territory (Okla.) in the 1830s. McKenney later claimed that his plan for Indian removal was intended to benefit the Indians and that Jackson was to blame for the outrages that resulted. It is probably no coincidence that Jackson dismissed McKenney shortly after signing the removal act into law. A pioneer in the study of North American ethnology, McKenney used federal funds to assemble in his war department office a virtual "archives of the American Indian," a large collection of books, manuscripts, artifacts, and paintings that constituted the first museum in Washington, D.C. The core of the collection was a gallery of some 150 portraits of prominent Indian men and women, most of them painted by Washington artist Charles Bird King during official visits to Washington. The portraits were later published as part of a mammoth lithography project that McKenney conceived of and launched, with the aid of writer James Hall, after his dismissal from the Office of Indian Affairs. Known as the History of the Indian Tribes of North America, the publication features the portraits and biographies of 120 Indian men and women from McKenney's collection. The entire archive eventually ended up at the Smithsonian Institution, where the portraits were destroyed by fire in 1865. American National Biography Online. (http://www.anb.org/articles/03/03-00320.html?a=1&f=mckenney&ia=-at&s=10&ib=-bib&d=10&ss=15&q=23) Retrieved 10/7/2009.
The collection consists of two color prints from original lithographs of portraits of the Creek chief, McIntosh, and the Creek warrior, Me-na-wa.
McKenney and Hall prints, MS 3172. Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries.